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Actual radiotherapy utilisation estimates in incident primary cancers in NSW are different depending on the method used, and all methods used in this study were below optimal.

The incidence of anal cancer has increased. This may be associated with changing sexual behaviours and increasing levels of HPV exposure in younger cohorts, and reinforce the importance of HPV vaccination.

Health service use and risk factor associations in 45 and Up Study participants diagnosed with bowel or lung cancer showed little evidence of bias when compared to the source population of people diagnosed with these cancers.

The cost of cancer care is substantial and varies by cancer type and time since diagnosis, emphasising the economic importance of effective primary and secondary prevention strategies.

Consultation with an oncologist mitigated most of the sociodemographic and service-related disparities in chemotherapy use. There is a need to establish referral pathways to ensure that all patients have the opportunity to discuss treatment options with a medical oncologist.

Smoking remains responsible for the highest burden of lung cancer in Australia. Differences in burden identify subgroups that could benefit the most from health promotion activities.

Geographical disparities in leukaemia might partly be explained by quality of, and access to, health systems linked to resource levels, although there is probably a role for aetiological factors, including gene-environment interactions.

Risk of suicide is higher for NSW men diagnosed with prostate cancer than the general age matched male population. Additional psychological support should be offered to vulnerable or lonely men and those with pre-existing depression or suicidal ideation.